The Roadmap for transforming the EU into a competitive low carbon economy by 2050

The European Commission today adopted a Roadmap for transforming the European Union into a competitive low carbon economy by 2050. The Roadmap

With its Roadmap for moving to a competitive low-carbon economy in 2050 the European Commission is looking beyond these 2020 objectives and setting out a plan to

• The new EU plan or 'roadmap' sets out the cost-effective route for transforming Europe into a competitive 'low-carbon' economy by mid-century. • This would 1 ROADMAP FOR MOVING TO A COMPETITIVE LOW-CARBON ECONOMY IN 2050 KEY FACTS & FIGURES • The Roadmap provides a cost-efficient pathway to a cleaner

Press corner European Commissio

COM(2011) 112 - A Roadmap for moving to a competitive low

A Roadmap for moving to a competitive low carbon economy in 2050 {COM(2011) 112 final} {SEC(2011) 289 final} Analysis of the EU perspective towards a Net Zero by 2050 A Roadmap for the Global Energy Sector the world's current largest solar park roughly every day. Hydropower and nuclear, the two largest sources EUROPEAN ALUMINIUM'S CONTRIBUTION TO THE EU MID-CENTURY LOW CARBON ROADMAP. A vision for strategic, low carbon and competitive aluminium Today, the European

A Roadmap for moving to a competitive low carbon economy in 2050 {SEC(2011) 287 final} {SEC(2011) 288 final} {SEC(2011) 289 final} elements that should Economic Frontiers; Energy, Climate, and Environment; Population and Just Societies; Strategic Initiatives; Large-scale Initiatives ; Models, Tools, and Data. IIASA The EU needs to start working now on long term strategies and the Roadmap provides guidance on how this transition can be achieved in the most cost effective way

Commission sets out Roadmap for building a competitive low

  1. g the EU into a competitive low carbon economy by 2050 was adopted by the European Commission. This Roadmap
  2. European Parliament resolution of 15 March 2012 on a Roadmap for moving to a competitive low carbon economy in 2050 (2011/2095(INI)) E. whereas industry needs
  3. Developing and deploying low-carbon technologies is a major opportunity to stimulate and support the recovery of the EU's economy from the COVID-19 pandemic. The
  4. Roadmap for moving to a competitive low carbon economy in 2050 2011/2095(INI) - 15/03/2012 - Text adopted by Parliament, single reading The European Parliament adopted by 398 votes to 132 with 104 abstentions, a resolution tabled by the Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety on a Roadmap for moving to a competitive low carbon economy in 2050. It endorses the Commission's.

COM(2011) 112 final/2: A Roadmap for moving to a competitive low carbon economy in 2050 With its Roadmap for moving to a competitive low-carbon economy in 2050, the European Commission has looked beyond these short-term objectives and set out a cost-effective pathway for achieving much deeper emission cuts by the middle of the century Roadmap 2050: a practical guide to a prosperous, low-carbon Europe has two primary objectives: a) to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of achieving at least an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions below 1990 levels by 2050, while maintaining or improving today's levels of electricity supply reliability, energy security, economic growth and prosperity; and b) to. EU Energy Roadmap 2050. 1. Introduction 1.1. Setting the scene: The European Union's low-carbon strategy In 2009, the European Union (EU) set an aspirational target of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 80-95% below 1990 levels by 2050 (European Council, 2009, confirmed in European Council, 2011). This objective reflects the EU's uni-lateral commitment to keeping increases in the. In 2011, the European Union unveiled its energy strategy to 2050, outlining the vision for transforming Europe into a competitive, low-carbon economy. The strategy calls for greater deployment of renewable energy, improved energy efficiency and reduction of GHG emissions. Within this framework, the EU seeks 20% efficiency improvement and emission reduction on 1990 levels, and a 20% share of.

The European Green Deal is a roadmap of actions that will transform the EU into an efficient, sustainable and competitive economy. Identifying means of transforming Europe into the world's first climate-neutral continent by 2050, it will stimulate economic development, improve health and quality of life, and transform climate and environmental challenges for opportunities in all areas and. attaining a competitive low-carbon economy by 2050. That document examines possible cost-efficient paths toward reducing European Union (EU) domestic greenhouse-gas emissions by 80 percent by 2050. According to the commission's report, European industry would have to cut back its emissions below 1990 levels by 34 to 40 percent by 2030 and by 83 to 87 percent by 2050.1 In this context, the. hydrogen supply and demand for a climate-neutral economy. It also tries to address the issue that the majority of hydrogen production today is fossil-based, as low-carbon hydrogen has yet to become cost competitive. To achieve this, the Strategy outlines a number of key actions and presents three strategic phases in the timeline up to 2050

The Circular Economy Action Plan for a Cleaner and More Competitive Europe, which is central to the European Green Deal, seeks to ensure that the economy is fit for a green future and strengthen competitiveness while protecting the environment. It introduces legislative and non-legislative measures and target areas where action at the EU level brings added value low-carbon economic growth and prosperity. www.irena.org Acknowledgements Valuable external review was provided by Martha Ekkert & Martin Schöpe (BMWi), Morgan Bazilian (Colorado School of Mines), Kim Møller Porst (EFKM), Luiz Barroso & Rafael de Sá Ferreira (EPE), Wang Zhongying (ERI), Andreas Kraemer (IASS), Laura Cozzi, Paolo Frankl, Timur Gul & Andrew Prag (IEA), Doug Arent & Jeff Logan. Energy Roadmap 2050: a secure, competitive and low-carbon energy sector is possible. Brussels, 15 December 2011 - To achieve the goal of cutting emissions by over 80% by 2050, Europe's energy production will have to be almost carbon-free. How to achieve this without disrupting energy supplies and competitiveness is the question answered by the.

European Commission issues low carbon roadmap to 2050

Avoiding a 'carbon lock-in' The report illustrates that past trends of extending the life of large fossil fuel power plants (at or above 200 MWe capacity) or building new ones would clash with the EU's best-case decarbonisation scenarios as set out in the EU's Energy Roadmap 2050 , resulting in fossil fuel overcapacity. This hypothetical situation is based on a detailed, unit-by-unit. The transition to a low-carbon economy will be one of the defining issues of the 21st century. This plan sets out a route-map for the UK's transition from here to 2020. With the discipline of carbon budgets, legally binding limits on emissions, we plan to drive change in every area: the way we generate energy, the way we heat our homes and workplaces and the way we travel. In Britain, as. opportunity to lead by example and transform the European economy. This overview takes a closer look at the European Green Deal with its extensive list of initiatives, and highlights what to watch out for in the coming days, months and years regarding low carbon technologies like carbon capture and storage (CCS). This paper explores how climate targets, governance, just transition, carbon. In unveiling a detailed package, the EU is putting its money where its mouth is and, leaders hope, sending a message to the rest of the world that the bloc will lead the world into a low-carbon.

produced from low carbon sources in future. Together with CO 2, hydrogen can also displace hydrocarbons, such as natural gas, in chemical processes such as the production of olefins and hydrocarbon solvents (BTX), which make up a substantial part of feedstock uses. This provides a carbon sink, i.e., an opportunity for CO 2 to be used instead of. low carbon economy. It is a world-leading expert on carbon reduction and clean technology. As a not-for-dividend group, it advises governments and leading companies around the world, reinvesting profits into its low carbon mission. Headquartered in London, the Carbon Trust has a global team of over 200 staff, representing over 3 'roadmap 2050' is commissioned by the european climate foundation and is based on extensive technical, economic and policy analyses conducted by five leading consultancies: imperial college.

Video: 2050 long-term strategy Climate Actio

The new special report, The World's Roadmap to Net Zero by 2050, will set out in detail what is needed from governments, companies, investors and citizens to fully decarbonise the energy sector and put emissions on a path in line with a temperature rise of 1.5 degrees Celsius. It is part of a series of new IEA projects to support efforts to reach global energy and climate goals To meet the EU's goal of net-zero emissions by 2050, a host of new technologies will need to be introduced and scaled up in order to decarbonise the energy, transport, heavy industry, buildings and agriculture sectors. French consultancy Capgemini has taken a deep dive into what needs to be done and come up with a list of 55 technology quests — everything from floating wind to ammonia. In November 2018, the European Commission presented a long-term strategic vision to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, showing how Europe can lead the way to climate neutrality - an economy with net-zero GHG emissions. The strategy explores how this can be achieved by looking at all the key economic sectors, including energy, transport, industry and agriculture. A portfolio of.

Gas for Climate: a path to 2050' is a group of ten leading European gas transport companies and two renewable gas industry associations. Gas for Climate is committed to achieve net zero greenhouse gas emissions in the EU by 2050 and is united in their conviction that renewable and low carbon gas used through existing gas infrastructure will help to deliver this at the lowest possible costs. and entrepreneurship needed to transform our products and services, developing cleaner technologies and capturing new international markets. These opportunities for growth are Ministerial Foreword. Enabling the transition to a Green Economy 3 not only from conventional 'green' sectors such as low-carbon energy generation and environmental products and services, but in other sectors such as. In December 2019, the European Commission launched the Green Deal, a comprehensive sustainability strategy with specific measures to make Europe climate neutral by 2050. According to the International Air Transport Association (IATA), commercial aviation is responsible for 2-3% of the global carbon emissions. In terms of the European Union, aviation accounts for 3% of the EU's total greenhouse.

EUR-Lex - 52011DC0112 - EN - EUR-Le

In recent years, environmental policy integration has made significant progress, for instance in the field of energy policy, as reflected in the parallel development of the EU's climate and energy package or in the Roadmap for moving to a competitive low-carbon economy by 2050. Basic framework. A. The Environment Action Programme The CO 2 Utilisation Roadmap explores the opportunities presented by emerging carbon capture and utilisation (CCU) technologies for Australia to support new industries and reduce carbon emissions.. The Roadmap identifies how emerging CCU technologies could be used to support growth opportunities in Australia's food and beverages industry, the creation of zero or low carbon building products. To support the EU low emissions strategy, Concawe is exploring a cross-sectorial Low Carbon Pathways (LCP) programme, identifying opportunities and challenges for different low-carbon technologies and feedstocks to achieve a significant reduction of the CO 2 emissions associated with both the manufacturing and use of refined products in Europe in the medium (2030) and longer-term (2050) The Roadmap to a Resource Efficient Europe and the Circular Economy Package should change this trend by transforming the EU's economy into a sustainable one by 2050. The four new directives on waste in the recent Circular Economy Package introduce new waste management targets regarding prevention, reuse, recycling and landfilling. Under the European Green Deal, the new Circular Economy. In 2011, the European Commission defined a roadmap paving the way to reaching a low carbon economy by 2050. In the roadmap, the Commission confirmed the EU objective of reducing European greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions of 80-95 % by 2050, as compared to 1990 levels. Several studies have focused on the economic impacts of the EU Energy Roadmap 2050. However, at the European level (e.g. the.

Another way to reduce emissions and to pursue carbon neutrality is to offset emissions made in one sector by reducing them somewhere else. This can be done through investment in renewable energy, energy efficiency or other clean, low-carbon technologies. The EU's emissions trading system (ETS) is an example of a carbon offsetting system There are proposals to transform the EU's current ETS into a carbon tax that is imposed on both domestic producers and importers. Such a mechanism has never been implemented. Although an EU-wide tax would seem to comply with international trade law, the domestic response in Europe has been mixed. Some EU producers that rely on imported inputs oppose it because their costs would rise. Having. greenhouse gases in 2050 and where economic growth is decoupled from resource use. Adina Vălean EU Commissioner for Transport Paving the Way: EU Policy Action for Automotive Circularity 3. Thomas Deloison Director, Mobility, World Business Council for Sustainable Development Foreword The automotive industry is a driver of Europe's economic value creation, competitive sovereignty, and. Portugal's equitable and well-balanced plans for reaching a carbon-neutral economy should support the country's economic growth and energy security, according to a new energy policy review by the International Energy Agency. Portugal's energy and climate policies aim to reach carbon neutrality primarily through broad electrification of energy demand and a rapid expansion of renewable. The outlook's Transforming Energy Scenario aligns energy investments with the need to keep global warming well below 2 o C, in line with the Paris Agreement. Jobs in renewables would reach 42 million globally by 2050, four times their current level, through the increased focus of investments on renewables

produce this Vision 2050 that advances a more unified Europe based on a: low-carbon, secure, reliable, resilient, accessible, cost-efficient, and market-based pan-European integrated energy system supplying the whole economy and paving the way for a fully CO 2-neutral and circular economy by the year 2050, while maintaining and extending globa The European airline industry has launched a sustainability plan to achieve carbon neutrality in the aviation sector by 2050, a roadmap they say will align the notoriously carbon-intensive sector. An EU Roadmap, off-road capacity development. Currently the countries of the EU, have 12 GW of installed off-shore renewable energy capacity. On November 19, 2020 the EU announced a plan to increase installed off-shore capacity five-fold to 60 GW by 2030 60 by 30), and twenty-five fold to 300 GW by 2050 (300 by 50). (This plan is in addition to the continued build out of shore-based. First, we need build a truly global coalition for carbon neutrality by 2050. The European Union has committed to do so. The United Kingdom, Japan, the Republic of Korea and more than 110 countries.

The Circular Cars Initiative (CCI) is a private/public sector collaboration focused on leveraging new technologies and business models to align the automotive industry with a 1.5C climate scenario. Through an integrated systems approach, CCI will provide a platform for actors in the value chain to eliminate gaps between economic incentives and social outcomes Long-term low greenhouse gas emission develo... UNFCCC Nav. Long-term low greenhouse gas emission development strategy of the European Union and its Member States. Versions. English. Document Type. Long-term low greenhouse gas emission development strategies (LT-LEDS) Topics. Ambition and collective progress. Mitigation . Keywords. GHG emissions. long-term low greenhouse gas emission. The Commission reaffirms its ambition to speed up the transition towards a competitive low-carbon economy. Die Europäische Kommission bekräftigt ihr Bestreben, den Übergang zu einer wettbewerbsfähigen Niedrigemissionswirtschaft voranzutreiben. eurlex-diff-2017. Supporting the shift towards a low-carbon economy in all sectors Förderung der Bestrebungen zur Verringerung der CO2-Emissionen.

European Commission issues low carbon roadmap to 205

VNCI's 2050 roadmap points to the need for abundant and cheap renewable electricity and biomass as feedstock to chemicals. It outlines political and investments conditions to enable a lower carbon footprint of the Dutch chemicals industry. download the Chemistry for Climate: Acting on the need for speed report. Chemistry 4.0: Growth through Innovation in a transforming wolrd. September 2017. transform the Union into a fair and prosperous society, with a modern, resource-efficient and competitive economy, where there are no net emissions of greenhouse gases in 2050 and where economic growth is decoupled from resource use. The European Green Deal also aims to protect, conserve and enhance the Union's natural capital, and protect the health and well-being of citizens from. EU Transport GHG: Routes to 2050 II Developing a better understanding of the secondary impacts, Commission's Roadmap for moving to a competitive low carbon economy in 2050;. The European Commission, DG Climate Action contracted a team led by AEA and including TNO, TEPR and CE Delft to carry out further analysis directly building on the work previously completed under the 'EU Transport. The EU Circular Economy Package adopted by the European Commission in December 2015 is a key milestone on the road to a low carbon, resource efficient future. The circular economy is the most important deliverable of the EU's Roadmap to a Resource Efficient Europe, which sets out a vision for the structural and technological changes needed in order to transform Europe's economy into a.

The introduction of the proposals follows the recent adoption by the Commission of the European climate law, setting into legislation the EU goal to reach climate neutrality by 2050. The climate law is a centerpiece of the European Green Deal, the EU strategy to transform the region into a modern, resource-efficient and competitive economy. In addition to the 2050 goal, the law set the binding. Developing and deploying low-carbon technologies is a major opportunity to stimulate and support the recovery of the EU's economy from the COVID-19 pandemic. The EU aspires to become greener, more circular and more digital while remaining competitive globally. Energy union (background information) European Green Deal (background information A net-zero economy by 2050 in the EU requires bold action across all sectors, and in none more than buildings. The building sector is one of the largest contributors to greenhouse gas emissions in the EU. Read more. Climate laws: frameworks to help governments become climate neutral. A new study by Ecologic Institute analyses the national climate laws in European countries and identifies a set. It aims to transform the EU into a resource-efficient and competitive economy where there are no net emissions of greenhouse gases in 2050 and where economic growth is decoupled from resource use. The Commission recognises that new technologies and disruptive innovation are critical to achieve the objectives of the European Green Deal. Horizon Europe is expected to play a pivotal role in. The Motion for a European Parliament Resolution on a Roadmap for moving to a competitive low carbon economy in 2050 (2011/2095(INI)) contained in the Draft Report of 28 October 2011 prepared for the Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety by the Rapporteur Chris Davies (hereinafter referred to as Draft Report') notes 'that the huge surplus of allowances now held by.

The 2050 low-carbon economy roadmap was a major undertaking back in 2011 and put the EU ahead of the game when it comes to long-term planning, said the source involved in updating the document Welcome to the first edition of Ashurst's Low Carbon Pulse. These regular updates will outline key developments covering each aspect of energy transition globally, such as renewable energy generation, storage and distribution, technological developments, new and developing policy settings, and major project developments and transactions. We will also bring you more detailed insights into.

Roadmap for moving to a low carbon economy in 2050 - guide

Low Carbon Pulse - Edition 17. Welcome to Edition 17 of Low Carbon Pulse - sharing significant current news on progress towards net-zero emissions globally. This Edition covers the period from Monday May 3, 2021 to Sunday May 16, 2021 (inclusive of each day). The PDF server is offline. Please try after sometime In 2019 the European Commission has presented the European Green Deal - a new growth strategy that aims to transform the EU into a resource-efficient and competitive economy where there are no net emissions of greenhouse gases in 2050 and where economic growth is decoupled from resource use, and counts on the contribution of hydrogen, and in particular of clean hydrogen. The New Industrial. — Low-carbon and renewable hydrogen will become competitive with grey hydrogen used for industry feedstock today as costs fall and carbon prices rise. In 9 of the 35 use cases we studied, low-carbon or renewable hydrogen solutions will also be competitive with conventional options by 2030. For example, this is the case for heavy-duty trucks To meet the decarbonisation targets, the EU aims to shift into low-carbon gases whilst reducing its total gas consumption. A clear roadmap still needs to be approved. (Commissioner Kadri Simson: The bloc needs to cut its gas demand by 25% by 2030). The reduction of methane leakages is also imperative. The EU aims to reduce them by 29%. Portuguese Roadmap for Carbon Neutrality in 2050. NECP 2030 was drafted in articulation and aligned with the vision defined by the RCN 2050 in accordance with the EU targets, addressing the different aspects of climate change and energy transition in order to comply with the Paris Agreement . The goal is to develop a competitive low carbon economy based on renewable energy sources, in.

Roadmap for transforming the European Union into a

In recommending that the United Kingdom (UK) adopt a target of net-zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 2050, the UK Climate Change Committee recognised that CCS is a necessity, not an option, and noted that early action to meet international demand for low-carbon materials could give UK firms a competitive advantage 2 As companies transform their business toward carbon neutrality, it's important to act fast to exploit the opportunities that arise. For a climate-friendly production, a clear roadmap and end-to-end cooperation across the entire supply chain are required. The European Parliament has declared a climate and environmental emergency for Europe. The new President of the EU Commission, Ursula von. low-carbon hydmgen. Combined with EU's leadership in renewables technologies, the emergence of a hydrogen value chain serving a multitude of industrial sectors and other end uses could employ up. 4.8 2011 White Paper Roadmap to a Single This was written alongside the Roadmap for moving to a competitive low carbon economy in 2050 which was a communication paper to reach higher commitment to EU's climate action based on innovative solutions on resources efficiency policies (European Commission, 2011b). Importantly, like the 2001 paper, this one states that the transport system. Low-carbon transportation fuels in aviation such as direct sun-to-liquid alternatives and others will be vital for the EU Roadmap towards a more sustainable, competitive and secure energy system in 2050

Working with policy makers, energy companies, academia and the supply chain a highly competitive Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) of €50 per MWhr is predicted by 2030. The InSPIRE project represents a significant advancement for the industry and a major step forward for a low carbon future Competitive industry and circular economy: The European Union is aware of the need to modernize industrial production in order to curb its greenhouse gas emissions. This includes recycling as a key element to promote an efficient use of resources, especially as regards sectors and technologies which depend on materials whose production is concentrated in a few countries outside the EU, such as.

Europe's Roadmap towards a competitive low-carbon Europe

VNCI's 2050 roadmap points to the need for abundant and cheap renewable electricity and biomass as feedstock to chemicals. It outlines political and investments conditions to enable a lower carbon footprint of the Dutch chemicals industry. download the Chemistry for Climate: Acting on the need for speed report. Chemistry 4.0: Growth through Innovation in a transforming wolrd. September 2017. In this context, there are vast amounts to be done in the research and innovation field to provide a differentiating competitive advantage for the EU in this market. High-performance advanced materials are at the core of the technological innovations needed to reach a sustainable and climate-neutral economy and society. Such materials are a. The EEA report 'Transforming the EU power sector: avoiding a carbon lock-in' stresses the need for Europe to become more forward-looking when it comes to investing in cleaner energy sources. It calls on the EU to seize the opportunity to 'decarbonise' the energy generating sector, replacing ageing and end-of-life coal-fired plants with renewable energy sources where possible between now. their potential to significantly leverage low-carbon and efficient mobility in European cities and rural settings. This will require a renewed focus on their potential contribution to modal shift, behaviour change, energy transition and intelligent demand and land use management. To this end, the implementation roadmap recommends designing and prioritising innovation actions targeting: 1.

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Between 2035 and 2050: switch rapidly to a system 100% based on renewable electricity and green hydrogen. Develop a modern, innovative, competitive and world leading economy on green electricity and green hydrogen as energy carriers and feedstock. *** Frank Wouters is a former Deputy Director-General at IRENA. For a full CV click here In 2011, the European Commission published a 2050 energy strategy and roadmap with the ambition to reduce the GHG emissions in Europe by 80-95 % below the 1990 level. The Commission Energy Union Package issued in 2015 outlined the European vision as a sustainable, low-carbon and climate friendly economy. Such a political ambition requires

Net Zero by 2050 - Analysis - IE

Maritime 2050 is designed to maximise UK strength in this area, retaining and enhancing its competitive advantage and developing new areas to compliment the offer, like green finance. Maritime 2050 will strengthen the UK's reputation for maritime innovation with an initial focus on autonomy and low-carbon technologies. For many of these. Online, 22 June 2020 Hydrogen as an energy source will play a key role in transforming aviation into a zero-carbon / climate-neutral system over the next few decades. Novel and disruptive aircraft, aero-engine and systems innovations in combination with hydrogen technologies can help to reduce the global warming effect of flying by 50 to 90%

VISION 2050 - European Aluminiu

The ambition to reduce net carbon intensity by at least 50% by 2050 takes into account scope 1, 2 and 3 emissions, from initial production to final consumption. By 2050 each unit of energy produced will, on average, have less than half of the emissions compared to today. The ambition is expected to be met primarily through significant growth in renewables and changes in the scale and. With the PtL Roadmap, policymakers and industry are jointly tackling the major challenge of making aviation carbon neutral. The Federal Environment Ministry is working with the PtX Lab Lausitz and the International PtX Hub Berlin to develop the technologies. We are currently transposing into national law the European Directive on the use of renewable energies in transport. This will ensure a. 3.3 Competitive Low Carbon Energy Production 44 3.3.1 Advanced materials for photovoltaics 45 3.3.2 Materials for wind energy production 46 3.3.3 Electricity from vibration and heat 47 3.4 Enhanced Energy Storage Technologies 48 3.4.1 Electrical energy storage 48 3.4.2 Thermal energy storage 48 3.4.3 Chemical energy storage 50 3.4.4 Direct photo-conversion of CO2: A long-term option 51 Health. Reasons for high interest in low-carbon hydrogen.. 6 Global and EU hydrogen market and selected national cases.. 7 Global hydrogen industry today is large, with many sources and uses.....8 Hydrogen consumption in EU.. 9 Projected hydrogen demand in EU for 2030 and 2050.. 10 Regulatory framework for hydrogen in EU.....11 Critical questions concerning acceptable renewable. low carbon economy. Railway transportation will also need to develop its attractiveness and competitiveness to meet that potential. In this context, we are very pleased that the recent EC 2011 Transport White paper Roadmap to a Single European Transport Area - Towards a competitive and resourc

Europese Commissie neemt '2050 Roadmap' aan voor beperking

To reach this target, the world will need to cut energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by 60 percent by 2050—even as the population grows by more than two billion people. This requires dramatic changes in our energy system: a strong increase in energy efficiency, a transition to renewable-energy sources and low-carbon energy carriers, and an increase in the rate at which industry.